Skip to content

Running jobs on Tursa

As with most HPC services, Tursa uses a scheduler to manage access to resources and ensure that the thousands of different users of system are able to share the system and all get access to the resources they require. Tursa uses the Slurm software to schedule jobs.

Writing a submission script is typically the most convenient way to submit your job to the scheduler. Example submission scripts (with explanations) for the most common job types are provided below.

Interactive jobs are also available and can be particularly useful for developing and debugging applications. More details are available below.

Hint

If you have any questions on how to run jobs on Tursa do not hesitate to contact the DiRAC Service Desk.

You typically interact with Slurm by issuing Slurm commands from the login nodes (to submit, check and cancel jobs), and by specifying Slurm directives that describe the resources required for your jobs in job submission scripts.

Resources

GPUh

Time used on Tursa nodes is measured in GPUh.
1 GPUh = 1 GPU for 1 hour. So a Tursa compute node with 4 GPUs would cost 4 GPUh per hour.

Note

The minimum resource request on Tursa is one full node which is charged at a rate of 4 GPUh per hour.

Checking available budget

You can check in SAFE by selecting Login accounts from the menu, select the login account you want to query.

Under Login account details you will see each of the budget codes you have access to listed e.g. e123 resources and then under Resource Pool to the right of this, a note of the remaining budgets.

When logged in to the machine you can also use the command

sacctmgr show assoc where user=$LOGNAME format=account,user,maxtresmins

This will list all the budget codes that you have access to e.g.

   Account       User   MaxTRESMins
---------- ---------- -------------
      e123      userx         cpu=0
 e123-test      userx

This shows that userx is a member of budgets e123 and e123-test. However, the cpu=0 indicates that the e123 budget is empty or disabled. This user can submit jobs using the e123-test budget.

To see the number of coreh or GPUh remaining you must check in SAFE.

Charging

Jobs run on Tursa are charged for the time they use i.e. from the time the job begins to run until the time the job ends (not the full wall time requested).

Jobs are charged for the full number of nodes which are requested, even if they are not all used.

Charging takes place at the time the job ends, and the job is charged in full to the budget which is live at the end time.

Basic Slurm commands

There are three key commands used to interact with the Slurm on the command line:

  • sinfo - Get information on the partitions and resources available
  • sbatch jobscript.slurm - Submit a job submission script (in this case called: jobscript.slurm) to the scheduler
  • squeue - Get the current status of jobs submitted to the scheduler
  • scancel 12345 - Cancel a job (in this case with the job ID 12345)

We cover each of these commands in more detail below.

sinfo: information on resources

sinfo is used to query information about available resources and partitions. Without any options, sinfo lists the status of all resources and partitions, e.g.

[dc-user1@tursa-login1 ~]$ sinfo 

PARTITION AVAIL  TIMELIMIT  NODES  STATE NODELIST
cpu          up   infinite      6   idle tu-c0r0n[66-71]
gpu*         up   infinite      2 drain* tu-c0r0n[27,30]
gpu*         up   infinite      1  down* tu-c0r4n33
gpu*         up   infinite      1  drain tu-c0r3n81
gpu*         up   infinite     58  alloc tu-c0r0n[00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21,24,33,36,39,42,45],tu-c0r1n[24,27,30,33,60,63,66,69,72,75,78,81,84,87,90,93],tu-c0r2n[24,27,30,33,60,63,66,69],tu-c0r3n[03,72,75,78,84,87,90,93],tu-c0r4n[00,03,06,12,15,24,27,30,60,63,66,69]
gpu*         up   infinite     50   idle tu-c0r1n[00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21],tu-c0r2n[00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21,72,75,78,81,84,87,90,93],tu-c0r3n[00,06,09,12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,60,63,66,69],tu-c0r4n[09,18,21,72,75,78,81,84,87,90,93]
rack0        up   infinite      2 drain* tu-c0r0n[27,30]
rack0        up   infinite     14  alloc tu-c0r0n[00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21,24,33,36,39,42,45]
rack1        up   infinite     16  alloc tu-c0r1n[24,27,30,33,60,63,66,69,72,75,78,81,84,87,90,93]
rack1        up   infinite      8   idle tu-c0r1n[00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21]
rack2        up   infinite      8  alloc tu-c0r2n[24,27,30,33,60,63,66,69]
rack2        up   infinite     16   idle tu-c0r2n[00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21,72,75,78,81,84,87,90,93]
rack3        up   infinite      1  drain tu-c0r3n81
rack3        up   infinite      8  alloc tu-c0r3n[03,72,75,78,84,87,90,93]
rack3        up   infinite     15   idle tu-c0r3n[00,06,09,12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,60,63,66,69]
rack4        up   infinite      1  down* tu-c0r4n33
rack4        up   infinite     12  alloc tu-c0r4n[00,03,06,12,15,24,27,30,60,63,66,69]
rack4        up   infinite     11   idle tu-c0r4n[09,18,21,72,75,78,81,84,87,90,93]
  • alloc nodes are those that are running jobs
  • idle nodes are empty
  • drain, down, maint nodes are unavailable to users

sbatch: submitting jobs

sbatch is used to submit a job script to the job submission system. The script will typically contain one or more srun commands to launch parallel tasks.

When you submit the job, the scheduler provides the job ID, which is used to identify this job in other Slurm commands and when looking at resource usage in SAFE.

sbatch test-job.slurm
Submitted batch job 12345

squeue: monitoring jobs

squeue without any options or arguments shows the current status of all jobs known to the scheduler. For example:

squeue

will list all jobs on Tursa.

The output of this is often large. You can restrict the output to just your jobs by adding the -u $USER option:

squeue -u $USER

scancel: deleting jobs

scancel is used to delete a jobs from the scheduler. If the job is waiting to run it is simply cancelled, if it is a running job then it is stopped immediately. You need to provide the job ID of the job you wish to cancel/stop. For example:

scancel 12345

will cancel (if waiting) or stop (if running) the job with ID 12345.

Resource Limits

The Tursa resource limits for any given job are covered by three separate attributes.

  • The amount of primary resource you require, i.e., number of compute nodes.
  • The partition that you want to use - this specifies the nodes that are eligible to run your job.
  • The Quality of Service (QoS) that you want to use - this specifies the job limits that apply.

Primary resource

The primary resource you can request for your job is the compute node.

Information

The --exclusive option is enforced on Tursa which means you will always have access to all of the memory on the compute node regardless of how many processes are actually running on the node.

Note

You will not generally have access to the full amount of memory resource on the the node as some is retained for running the operating system and other system processes.

Partitions

On Tursa, compute nodes are grouped into partitions. You will have to specify a partition using the --partition option in your Slurm submission script. The following table has a list of active partitions on Tursa.

Partition Description Max nodes available
cpu CPU nodes with AMD EPYC 32-core processor × 2 6
gpu GPU nodes with AMD EPYC 32-core processor and NVIDIA A100 GPU × 4 114

You can list the active partitions by running sinfo.

Tip

You may not have access to all the available partitions.

Quality of Service (QoS)

On Tursa, job limits are defined by the requested Quality of Service (QoS), as specified by the --qos Slurm directive. The following table lists the active QoS on Tursa.

QoS Max Nodes Per Job Max Walltime Jobs Queued Jobs Running Partition(s) Notes
standard 64 48 hrs 32 16 gpu, cpu Only jobs sizes that are powers of 2 nodes are allowed (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 nodes), only available when your budget is positive.
low 64 24 hrs 4 4 gpu, cpu Only jobs sizes that are powers of 2 nodes are allowed (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 nodes), only available when your budget is zero or negative

You can find out the QoS that you can use by running the following command:

sacctmgr show assoc user=$USER cluster=tursa format=cluster,account,user,qos%50

As long as you have a positive budget, you should use the standard QoS. Once you have exhausted your budget you can use the low QoS to continue to run jobs at a lower priority than jobs in the standard QoS.

Hint

If you have needs which do not fit within the current QoS, please contact the Service Desk and we can discuss how to accommodate your requirements.

Important

Only jobs sizes that are powers of 2 nodes are allowed. i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 nodes on the gpu partition and 1, 2, 4 nodes on the cpu partition.

Priority

Job priority on Tursa depends on a number of different factors:

  • The QoS your job has specified
  • The amount of time you have been queuing for
  • Your current fairshare factor

Each of these factors is normalised to a value between 0 and 1, is multiplied with a weight and the resulting values combined to produce a priority for the job. The current job priority formula on Tursa is:

Priority = [10000 * P(QoS)] + [500 * P(Age)] + [300 * P(Fairshare)]

The priority factors are:

  • P(QoS) - The QoS priority normalised to a value between 0 and 1. The maximum raw value is 10000 and the minimum is 0. standard QoS has a value of 5000 and low QoS a value of 1.
  • P(Age) - The priority based on the job age normalised to a value between 0 and 1. The maximum raw value is 14 days (where P(Age) = 1).
  • P(Fairshare) - The fairshare priority normalised to a value between 0 and 1. Your fairshare priority is determined by a combination of your budget code fairshare value and your user fairshare value within that budget code. The more use that the budget code you are using has made of the system recently relative to other budget codes on the system, the lower the budget code fairshare value will be; and the more use you have made of the system recently relative to other users within your budget code, the lower your user fairshare value will be. The decay half life for fairshare on Tursa is set to 14 days. More information on the Slurm fairshare algorithm.

You can view the priorities for current queued jobs on the system with the sprio command:

[dc-user1@tursa-login1 ~]$ sprio 
          JOBID PARTITION   PRIORITY       SITE        AGE  FAIRSHARE        QOS
          43963 gpu             5055          0         51          5       5000
          43975 gpu             5061          0         41         20       5000
          43976 gpu             5061          0         41         20       5000
          43982 gpu             5046          0         26         20       5000
          43986 gpu             5011          0          6          5       5000
          43996 gpu             5020          0          0         20       5000
          43997 gpu             5020          0          0         20       5000

Troubleshooting

Slurm error messages

An incorrect submission will cause Slurm to return an error. Some common problems are listed below, with a suggestion about the likely cause:

  • sbatch: unrecognized option <text>

    One of your options is invalid or has a typo. man sbatch to help.

  • error: Batch job submission failed: No partition specified or system default partition

    A --partition= option is missing. You must specify the partition (see the list above). This is most often --partition=standard.

  • error: invalid partition specified: <partition>

    error: Batch job submission failed: Invalid partition name specified

    Check the partition exists and check the spelling is correct.

  • error: Batch job submission failed: Invalid account or account/partition combination specified

    This probably means an invalid account has been given. Check the --account= options against valid accounts in SAFE.

  • error: Batch job submission failed: Invalid qos specification

    A QoS option is either missing or invalid. Check the script has a --qos= option and that the option is a valid one from the table above. (Check the spelling of the QoS is correct.)

  • error: Your job has no time specification (--time=)...

    Add an option of the form --time=hours:minutes:seconds to the submission script. E.g., --time=01:30:00 gives a time limit of 90 minutes.

  • error: QOSMaxWallDurationPerJobLimit error: Batch job submission failed: Job violates accounting/QOS policy (job submit limit, user's size and/or time limits)

    The script has probably specified a time limit which is too long for the corresponding QoS. E.g., the time limit for the short QoS is 20 minutes.

Slurm queued reasons

The squeue command allows users to view information for jobs managed by Slurm. Jobs typically go through the following states: PENDING, RUNNING, COMPLETING, and COMPLETED. The first table provides a description of some job state codes. The second table provides a description of the reasons that cause a job to be in a state.

Status Code Description
PENDING PD Job is awaiting resource allocation.
RUNNING R Job currently has an allocation.
SUSPENDED S Job currently has an allocation.
COMPLETING CG Job is in the process of completing. Some processes on some nodes may still be active.
COMPLETED CD Job has terminated all processes on all nodes with an exit code of zero.
TIMEOUT TO Job terminated upon reaching its time limit.
STOPPED ST Job has an allocation, but execution has been stopped with SIGSTOP signal. CPUS have been retained by this job.
OUT_OF_MEMORY OOM Job experienced out of memory error.
FAILED F Job terminated with non-zero exit code or other failure condition.
NODE_FAIL NF Job terminated due to failure of one or more allocated nodes.
CANCELLED CA Job was explicitly cancelled by the user or system administrator. The job may or may not have been initiated.

For a full list of see Job State Codes.

Reason Description
Priority One or more higher priority jobs exist for this partition or advanced reservation.
Resources The job is waiting for resources to become available.
BadConstraints The job's constraints can not be satisfied.
BeginTime The job's earliest start time has not yet been reached.
Dependency This job is waiting for a dependent job to complete.
Licenses The job is waiting for a license.
WaitingForScheduling No reason has been set for this job yet. Waiting for the scheduler to determine the appropriate reason.
Prolog Its PrologSlurmctld program is still running.
JobHeldAdmin The job is held by a system administrator.
JobHeldUser The job is held by the user.
JobLaunchFailure The job could not be launched. This may be due to a file system problem, invalid program name, etc.
NonZeroExitCode The job terminated with a non-zero exit code.
InvalidAccount The job's account is invalid.
InvalidQOS The job's QOS is invalid.
QOSUsageThreshold Required QOS threshold has been breached.
QOSJobLimit The job's QOS has reached its maximum job count.
QOSResourceLimit The job's QOS has reached some resource limit.
QOSTimeLimit The job's QOS has reached its time limit.
NodeDown A node required by the job is down.
TimeLimit The job exhausted its time limit.
ReqNodeNotAvail Some node specifically required by the job is not currently available. The node may currently be in use, reserved for another job, in an advanced reservation, DOWN, DRAINED, or not responding. Nodes which are DOWN, DRAINED, or not responding will be identified as part of the job's "reason" field as "UnavailableNodes". Such nodes will typically require the intervention of a system administrator to make available.

For a full list of see Job Reasons.

Output from Slurm jobs

Slurm places standard output (STDOUT) and standard error (STDERR) for each job in the file slurm_<JobID>.out. This file appears in the job's working directory once your job starts running.

Hint

Output may be buffered - to enable live output, e.g. for monitoring job status, add --unbuffered to the srun command in your SLURM script.

Specifying resources in job scripts

You specify the resources you require for your job using directives at the top of your job submission script using lines that start with the directive #SBATCH.

Hint

Most options provided using #SBATCH directives can also be specified as command line options to srun.

If you do not specify any options, then the default for each option will be applied. As a minimum, all job submissions must specify the budget that they wish to charge the job too with the option:

  • --account=<budgetID> your budget ID is usually something like t01 or t01-test. You can see which budget codes you can charge to in SAFE.

Other common options that are used are:

  • --time=<hh:mm:ss> the maximum walltime for your job. e.g. For a 6.5 hour walltime, you would use --time=6:30:0.
  • --job-name=<jobname> set a name for the job to help identify it in

In addition, parallel jobs will also need to specify how many nodes, parallel processes and threads they require.

  • --nodes=<nodes> the number of nodes to use for the job.
  • --tasks-per-node=<processes per node> the number of parallel processes (e.g. MPI ranks) per node. For Grid on GPU nodes this will typically be 4 to give 1 MPI process per GPU. The CPU nodes have 128 cores per node.
  • --cpus-per-task=<stride between processes> for Grid jobs on GPU nodes where you typically use 1 MPI process per GPU, 4 per node, this will usually be 8 (so that the 32 cores on a node are evenly divided between the 4 MPI processes)
  • --gres=gpu:4 the number of GPU to use per node. This will almost always be 4 to use all GPUs on a node. (This option should not be specified for jobs on the CPU nodes.)

Note

For parallel jobs, Tursa operates in a node exclusive way. This means that you are assigned resources in the units of full compute nodes for your jobs (i.e. 32 cores and 4 GPU on GPU nodes, 128 cores on CPU nodes) and that no other user can share those compute nodes with you. Hence, the minimum amount of resource you can request for a parallel job is 1 node (or 32 cores and 4 GPU on GPU nodes, 128 cores on CPU nodes).

To prevent the behaviour of batch scripts being dependent on the user environment at the point of submission, the option

  • --export=none prevents the user environment from being exported to the batch system.

Using the --export=none means that the behaviour of batch submissions should be repeatable. We strongly recommend its use, although see the following section to enable access to the usual modules.

mpirun: Launching parallel jobs

If you are running parallel jobs, your job submission script should contain one or more mpirun commands to launch the parallel executable across the compute nodes. You will usually add the following options to mpirun:

  • -np <number of MPI processes>: specify the number of MPI processes to launch
  • --map-by-numa
  • -x $LD_LIBRARY_PATH: ensure that the library paths are available to MPI processes
  • --bind-to none

Example job submission scripts

Example: job submission script for Grid parallel job using CUDA

A job submission script for a Grid job that uses 4 compute nodes, 16 MPI processes per node and 4 GPUs per node:

#!/bin/bash

# Slurm job options (job-name, compute nodes, job time)
#SBATCH --job-name=Example_Grid_job
#SBATCH --time=12:0:0
#SBATCH --nodes=4
#SBATCH --tasks-per-node=4
#SBATCH --cpus-per-task=8
#SBATCH --gres=gpu:4

# Replace [budget code] below with your budget code (e.g. t01)
#SBATCH --account=[budget code]             

# Load the correct modules
module load gcc/9.3.0
module load cuda/11.4.1 
module load openmpi/4.1.1-cuda11.4

ACC_THREADS=8

export OMP_NUM_THREADS=8

# Settings for MPI performance
export OMPI_MCA_btl=^uct,openib
export UCX_TLS=rc,rc_x,sm,cuda_copy,cuda_ipc,gdr_copy
export UCX_RNDV_THRESH=16384
export UCX_RNDV_SCHEME=put_zcopy
export UCX_IB_GPU_DIRECT_RDMA=yes
export UCX_MEMTYPE_CACHE=n

export OMPI_MCA_io=romio321
export OMPI_MCA_btl_openib_allow_ib=true
export OMPI_MCA_btl_openib_device_type=infiniband
export OMPI_MCA_btl_openib_if_exclude=mlx5_1,mlx5_2,mlx5_3

# These will need to be changed to match the actual application you are running
application="my_mpi_openmp_app.x"
options="arg 1 arg2"

mpirun -np $SLURM_NTASKS --map-by numa -x LD_LIBRARY_PATH --bind-to none ./wrapper.sh ${application} ${options}"

This will run your executable "grid" in parallel usimg 16 MPI processes on 4 nodes, 8 OpenMP thread will be used per MPI process and 4 GPUs will be used per node (32 cores per node, 4 GPUs per node). Slurm will allocate 4 nodes to your job and srun will place 4 MPI processes on each node.

When running on Tursa it is important that we specify how each of the GPU's interacts with the network interfaces to reach optimal network communication performance. To achieve this, we introduce a wrapper script (specified as wrapper.sh in the example job script above) that sets a number of environment parameters for each rank in a node (each GPU in a node) explicitly tell each rank which network interface it should use to communicate internode.

wrapper.sh script example:

#!/bin/bash


lrank=$OMPI_COMM_WORLD_LOCAL_RANK
numa1=$(( 2 * $lrank))
numa2=$(( 2 * $lrank + 1 ))
netdev=mlx5_${lrank}:1

export CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=$OMPI_COMM_WORLD_LOCAL_RANK
export UCX_NET_DEVICES=mlx5_${lrank}:1
BINDING="--interleave=$numa1,$numa2"

echo "`hostname` - $lrank device=$CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES binding=$BINDING"

numactl ${BINDING}  $*

See above for a more detailed discussion of the different sbatch options